|Life Straw gets rid of Bacteria|
Welcome to the Hub of Inspiring Changes. Portal for the Youth of Pakistan
Get rid of Youth Problems
The problems related to youth continue to simmer up. Find out all the solutions and find out health home remedies for problems such as depression.
Monday, 5 May 2014
Sunday, 4 May 2014
Definition of Commitment
|Real commitment in a relationship|
Family and Friends
Saturday, 19 October 2013
How to get rid of other on iphone using general tricksOther data can be a mixture of a lot of things. This means operating system settings and data, Safari cache, Siri cache, downloaded maps, reminders, notes, stocks, weather data, email, texts, iMessages, and data for all of the apps on your phone. Following are few solutions that can help get rid of other without restoring.
- Sync – This may work for some phones. In iTunes, uncheck the 'sync' option in Photos, Books, TV Shows, Movies, Music and Ringtones. Sync the phone. Go back in and re-check the 'sync' option in Photos, Books, TV Shows, Movies, Music and Ringtones. Re-sync the phone.
- iTunes downloads - Make sure no files are paused or stuck. Until the file is downloaded, it is included in other data.
- iTunes match – Turning it on stores some music data in hiding for future use as cache. If you have it turned on, turn it off and delete all songs off the phone manually. Preferably not with the swipe left thing but by going artist by artist. Then you can turn it back on.
- Email - Email attachments are saved under other data. First delete the email account and re-setup it. Then make sure it isn't set to download all your email from all time. This would free-up some space.
- SMS/MMS/iMessage – SMS with photo and video attachments can take up a lot of space on other. Deleting these would help get rid of other on iphone. Sometimes your iphone doesn’t instantly show the freed space. To solve this issue, delete messages and then power the phone off for 30+ seconds.
Tutorial to get rid of other on iphone using PhoneCleanA great way to get rid of other without restoring is by using PhoneClean. Most people find themselves skeptical when downloading freeware apps for ‘cleaning’. Rightfully so, as such softwares usually cause more problems than they solve. This isn’t the case with PhoneClean. The app is created by a company called iMobie who are known for many apps for transferring data to and from iphone. The good thing about PhoneClean is that it’s free of charge, unlike most of the apps from iMobie. Learning how to get rid of other on iphone using PhoneClean is simple.
- First download and install the software on your PC. This can be found at http://www.imobie.com/phoneclean/
- Make sure your device is plugged in your computer.
- Begin scan
- The app will then analyze your device for ‘Temp and Junk Files’, ‘Cache and Off-line Files’, ‘Cookie and Script Files’ and ‘Sync-failed Media Files’.
- After completing scan, the app will show the data that you don’t need. Clean up to free up space in other.
Clean up "Other" Storage with restoringSometimes the reason of other data being huge is data corruption. It can be deadly as other would keep on increasing. To get rid of other on iphone when nothing else is working, restoration is the best way-out. This reduces the other data to the minimum size possible. Important: Restoration will delete all your app data. So it’s recommended that you back-up your contacts, iMessages etc using any software you want. Also you must do a clean restore and not restore to back-up. To get rid of other using restoration, follow the steps below.
- Connect your iphone to computer and open iTunes.
- Allow iphone to sync completely.
- Open the "Summary" tab under your device menu.
- Under ‘Backups’ find ‘Manually Back Up and Restore’ and click ‘Back up Now’.
- Let your iphone back-up the data. This may take several minutes.
- Click ‘Restore iPhone’ once the back-up is complete.
- When the pop-up appears, click "Restore." This may take several minutes.
- When the iPhone is reset, follow the directions given on the iphone.
Source: Tutorial: How to get rid of Other on iPhone
Friday, 18 October 2013
Best Natural ways to get rid of Insomnia: Home remedies and Treatments
|How to get rid of Insomnia Disorder|
· Establish a regular time for going to bed and getting up in the morning. Stick to this schedule even on weekends and during vacations.
· Avoid naps, especially in the evening.
· Exercise before dinner. A low point in energy occurs a few hours after exercise; sleep will then come more easily. Exercising close to bedtime, however, may increase alertness.
· Take a hot bath about 1.5 - 2 hours before bedtime. This alters the body's core temperature rhythm and helps people fall asleep more easily and more continuously. (Taking a bath shortly before bed increases alertness.)
· Do something relaxing in the 30 minutes before bedtime. Reading, meditation, and a leisurely walk are all appropriate activities.
· Keep the bedroom relatively cool and well ventilated.
· Do not look at the clock. Obsessing over time will just make it more difficult to sleep.
· Eat light meals, and schedule dinner 4 - 5 hours before bedtime. A light snack before bedtime can help sleep, but a large meal may have the opposite effect.
· Avoid caffeine in the hours before sleep.
· If a specific worry is keeping one awake, thinking of the problem in terms of images rather than in words may allow a person to fall asleep more quickly and to wake up with less anxiety.
These natural ways should help you get rid of Insomnia and sleeping disorders. To know more about Insomnia and other sleeping disorders, read Insomnia Disorder: Types, Causes, Effects, Natural treatments and Therapies
Tuesday, 15 October 2013
The Chief Minister has approved a new 100MW power plant which would produce cheap electricity for the public. Chief Minister has directed the local government secretary to file the final recommendations so that the work can start immediately on Quaid-e-Azam Solar energy park . Although some portions of the media has questioned "Why solar energy?", the move has generally been taken positively by the mass portions of the media.
As per the new energy policy that was announced in July, one of the major initiatives the PML N government has taken is to solve the energy crisis.
The major solar energy companies were consulted and the 2 projects would add to the electricity production capacity of Pakistan. The estimated completion time is 2-3 years and it would also help to reduce the electricity tariff rates which have jumped to Rs.14 per unit.
Apart from that, with the corporation of Asian Development Bank, coal based projects have also begun in Jamshoro.
All these transactions have to be carried out with the solar energy companies transparently. The sooner the solar projects are completed, the more relief the public would gain.
Monday, 14 October 2013
|Image of Verdun Battle|
BATTLE OF VERDUNIn December 1915, German Chief of Staff, Erich von Falkenhayn, devised a plan to win a quick victory on the Western Front. Besides launching a submarine war and cutting off all supplies approaching Britain by targeting merchant vessels, he also planned to lay siege to Verdun, France. Verdun was historically a French stronghold. With eighteen major and twelve minor forts around the city, the loss of Verdun would impact the morale of France and the country would fight tooth and nail to salvage the city, Falkenhayn argued. His intent to “bleed France white” was sanctioned by the Kaiser.
Crown Prince Wilhelm and the German Fifth Army led the attack on February 21, 1916. Verdun was bombarded for about two days before the launch of the attack. Having received prior information about the attack, French General Joseph Joffre assigned Lieutenant Colonel Emile Driant to lead the defense. Over 200,000 French soldiers guarded Verdun against a million German troops. Crown Prince Wilhelm targeted Verdun with over 1,400 guns and millions of shells. When he received information that the shelling and bombardment had not caused much damage, Wilhelm decided not to attack Verdun. He decided to continue with bombardment. Consequently, only the first line of trenches defending Verdun had been taken by the Germans. The French troops, having lost Lieutenant Colonel Driant, defended Verdun bravely. By February 24, 1916, the German troops had reached within five miles of Verdun. Douaumont, one of the important forts surrounding Verdun, was taken over by French troops. Joffre then placed Verdun under the command of General Henri-Philippe Petain who became known for his declaration, "They shall not pass!" Petain organized the defenses of Verdun efficiently while taking care to dedicate troops for the safeguard of the supply route known as the “Sacred Road.”
Starting March 6, 1916, Wilhelm launched a number of offensives at Verdun but each was successfully repelled by the French troops. France deployed most of its army to fight at Verdun. Petain’s plan to inflict heavy damages to the German army was successful, but the French lost almost as many men as their enemies. In their third attack, starting April 9, 1918, the Germans made slow progress. The forts at Homme Hill and Fort Vaux were captured. At the same time Petain was replaced by General Robert Nivelle.
By June and July of 1916, the Germans came dangerously close to capturing Verdun. They then launched a gas attack with the much-feared phosgene gas. The BEF came to the rescue of the French army by launching the Battle of the Somme on July 1, 1916, thus diverting the concentration of the German troops at Verdun. The Russian army also launched simultaneous offensives on the Eastern Front, making it necessary to move troops away from Verdun.
You may also like to read: The battle of Tanneberg: Historic World War 1 battles
Back home in Germany, Falkenhayn came under heavy criticism due to a lack of breakthrough at Verdun. Paul von Hindenburg replaced Falkenhayn as Chief of German Staff. General Charles Mangin was appointed by the French to take charge of the forts at Verdun. His able leadership enabled the French troops to recover Douaumont and Fort Vaux. With the French recovering all lost ground and capturing 11,000 German soldiers, Hindenburg called off the battle on December 18, 1916. While the Germans estimated a loss of 434,000 soldiers, the French pinned their losses at 550,000. The Battle of Verdun was the longest battle of World War I and drained both sides by causing huge losses.
Tuesday, 8 October 2013
Internet technology has become a major part of education infrastructure in today’s world offering online degree programs, education courses, accredited online degrees and knowledge data base. The education websites in Pakistan also act as metamediaries have emerged during the past half a decade and help to lessen the academic problems of Pakistan.
The education in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is under the governance of the Ministry of Education and under the provincial governments. The educational infrastructure currently in practice in Pakistan can be divided into 5 tiers, namely primary school, middle school, high school or O’ Levels, Intermediate level or A’ Levels and then university level which includes both undergraduate and post graduate programs.
If we refer to the global rankings of universities on the internet, we get to know that 8 universities of Pakistan fall under the top 100 Technology universities of the world giving online degree programs and accredited online degrees. Moreover, 1 Pakistani universities fall under the 200` top universities around the globe.
List of Education Websites in Pakistan
Ministry of Education (Med)
Med is one of the best education websites in Pakistan. The Ministry of Education, also known as Med, is the cabinet-level ministry which is the organization which is responsible for the advent of education and the abolishment of illiteracy in Pakistan. This information is available on the official website of the Med, http://www.moe.gov.pk/. The objectives of the Ministry are clearly defined under the section “Functions”. Some of these functions include the process and the protection of copyrights in Pakistan, to conduct external examinations in Pakistan and provide equivalent degrees and diplomas to seize job opportunities and to continue further studies inside and outside of the country, to provide the medium of instructions in the National and Official language, providing military training to students, providing aid and grants and monitoring state educational institutes and libraries to the areas of Pakistan, and Azad Jammu and Kashmir and to process and approve plans proposed by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. The site also includes the addresses of the different offices and departments of the Ministries and their contact details. Moreover, the site also has forms available for download for various purposes, some of which include the form to change one’s subjects or subject group, the form to change personal details in the state’s educational institute’s registry, etc.
Higher Education Commission (HEC)
The University Grant Commission or the now referred to as the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is the head regulatory authority if education in Pakistan. Its main objective is to provide necessary facilities to higher education institutes in Pakistan so that they can provide quality and international standards level of education. The economy that has been built in Pakistan due to the advent of knowledge can all be credited to the role that the HEC has been playing since the past couple of years. It has been providing the bridge between the universities in Pakistan and those abroad and the students of Pakistan.
The HEC website http://www.hec.gov.pk is updated regularly and the latest news regarding the new researches and new education opportunities and scholarships worldwide is available on the website. The site provides the latest state and private university rankings of Pakistan and the trained, approved and registered doctorate faculty present in the country. The site also shows the opportunities available for students in extracurricular programs. These include scholarships in sports various other co-curricular activities. The website also has links and information about other universities currently providing high quality education in Pakistan.
Friday, 4 October 2013
Thursday, 3 October 2013
History of U.S and Cuba RelationsIn 1898 a decadent Spanish empire was faced with war against the United States on many fronts. This war began with the sinking of the American Battleship Maine in Cuba under unexplained circumstances which finally convinced or forced the American government to intervene into Cuba’s fight for independence from Spain. Cuba had been one of the last colonies of the Spanish Empire and Spain had always been reluctant to give it up even though the United States had tried to purchase the colony for costly amounts. The United States saw Cuba as one of its own states, due to geographical, economical and political reasons and felt very strongly about Spanish atrocities being carried out prior to the independence movement of Cuba. Hence with the sinking of Maine and within four months of majorly American victories in battle, Cuba was taken as a protectorate of the United States, Spain having renounced all claims to the territory in accordance to the Treaty of Paris according to Claire Suddath (2009). Till 1901 the United States had a military government in Cuba. Then in 1901 Cuba was granted freedom albeit with some restriction under the Platt Amendment which were incorporated into the Cuban Constitution. The Amendment granted the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuba's internal affairs and stated that Cuba cannot enter into treaties or financial relationships with other countries. It also contained a provision for an American naval base at Guantanamo Bay, which would later become infamous for the terrorist suspects held and tortured there. Hence Cuba became an independent country with Tomas Estrada Palma as its president but with indirect control of intervention through any means by the United States for the purpose of ‘protecting’ the Cuban people.
In the following 20 years the United States repeatedly intervened militarily in Cuban affairs. The first one was in 1906 – 1909; which took place after the collapse of President Tomas Estrada Palma's government, President Theodore Roosevelt ordered an invasion of Cuba and established an occupation that would go on for nearly four years. The objective of the operation was to thwart fighting between the Cubans, to protect U.S. economic interests, and to conduct free elections. Following the election of Jose Miguel Gomez, in November 1908, Cuba was considered to be stable enough to allow an extraction of American troops, which was completed in February 1909. Three years later in 1912 the Negro Rebellion occurred which was an armed conflict in Cuba, taking place mostly in the eastern region of the island. The conflict involved the extensive massacre of Afro-Cubans, by the Cuban Army, and an intervention by the United States military. Both the massacre and the presence of American troops quashed the violence so the strife and the occupation ended after only a few weeks. Lastly in the war of 1917 – 1922 the U.S. was again forced to intervene to put down another rebellion against the Cuban government.
By 1926 the U.S. interests in Cuba had become too intensive for the U.S. to not support the government(s) in Cuba. The U.S. was the main economic partner of Cuba as well as owning a considerable share of the Cuban economy itself; the United States owned more than 60% of the Cuban sugar industry which was the primary source of good being produced at that time. Therefore the American policy became more and more pro-government in Cuba, irrespective of how corrupt or dictatorial that government was, as long as it served American interests. This policy eventually led to Ramon Garu’s government being denied acceptance by the American government and to the rise of General Fulgencio Batista dictatorial regime which would eventually cause a revolution in Cuba. Batista ruled from 1940 to 1944 in his first tenure and was then, through a military coup orchestrated with the backing of the then American President Harry Truman. Batista was viewed as a very pro-American leader and especially in his second tenure strived for a great amount of cooperation with the United States. This ended up with the total domination of the Cuban economy by U.S. corporation as well as increased U.S. intervention in Cuban politics. Batista was accused of being highly corrupt and belligerent by the Cuban people but the U.S. was determined to keep his regime in power. Rebellions constantly took place in the 1950’s, and when finally in 1958 the U.S. government stopped the trade of arms to the Batista government, the rebels under Fidel Castro gained an insurmountable advantage over the government troops and soon overran the forces of the Cuban government. This would mark a new chapter in the history of U.S.-Cuban relations. Claire Suddath (2009)
Ending of diplomatic relationsFidel Castro was not the type of leader that Cuba had had before, he was a dedicated socialist who believed in Cuba’s national identity and was ready to take action against all those forces that would stop him from achieving his aims. One of the first things he did when he came into power was to start the nationalization of the Cuban economy, which essentially meant that he confiscated all privately held enterprises (almost all of them belonging to the U.S.) and do so without giving any sort of compensation to their original owners. Secondly Castro introduced agrarian reforms, effectively ending U.S. control of cheap labor working on U.S. held farms in Cuba as per Lana Wylie (2011). This caused uproar in the U.S. which stood against nationalization on not only an ideological point of view, but also on the basis that this alone caused billions of dollars of investments to be lost. The U.S. government reacted harshly to this, putting various trade and economic embargoes on Cuba eventually leading to a curtailment of the import of Cuban sugar and export of oil to Cuba, devastating Cuban economy and further worsening relations between the two countries according to Rens Lee (2008). In 1960 President Eisenhower of the United States authorized covert action by the CIA to facilitate the removal of Fidel Castro and his communist government through any means; which eventually amounted to assassination, support of anti-government forces and finally an invasion. Castro decided to align Cuba with the Soviet Union which finally led to all diplomatic ties between the U.S. and Cuba being broken off. The embassies of both nations were closed off in each other’s capitals and ambassadors were recalled.
Bay of Pigs InvasionThe hostility came to a head with the invasion of Cuba planned by the U.S. later named the Bay of Pigs invasion. The Bay of Pigs was not originally President John Kennedy's idea. As the communist nature of Fidel Castro's regime became apparent, the urge to bring down his government grew. President Eisenhower's administration had already designed the invasion, which would be handled by the CIA. By the time of Kennedy's inauguration, the order to invade was the only remaining piece of the plan to put into place. Planning for the invasion began in 1960, before diplomatic ties with Cuba had been broken. The state of affairs was delicate, since the plan was to overthrow a government with which the United States was not at war. Various aspects, including propaganda and military strategies, were included in the plan, along with the directive that the U.S. should not appear to be involved. Cuban and hired Americans were to be used in the invasion with equipment being provided by the CIA.
On April 12, 1961, Kennedy told a press conference that the United States clearly had no intention of intervening in Cuban affairs. Five days later, the invasion took place. This only showed the Cuban populace and government that U.S. could no longer be trusted with anything it stated. Adlai Stevenson, the American ambassador to the U.N., emphatically denied the Cuban ambassador's charges about the attack. Unfortunately, the truth came out within a few hours and Stevenson along with the U.S. government was greatly embarrassed.
The invaders surrendered on the afternoon of April 19. More than 200 people been killed; another 1,197 were taken captive. The failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion set the stage for further hostility against Castro from the United States. President Kennedy made little attempt to hide his persistent aspiration to see Castro deposed. Castro’s insecurity about the prospect of his rule over Cuba led to the installation of Soviet nuclear missiles there, leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Another operation code named Mongoose was also carried out by the CIA and was also a failure and was made public.
Cuban Missile crisesIn August 1962, after some failed operations by the US to bring down the Cuban government of Fidel Castro, the Cuban and Soviet governments clandestinely began to construct bases in Cuba for a number of nuclear missiles with the capability to target most of the United States; thereby changing the balance of power in the cold war since the USSR did not have this ability of directly threatening the U.S. The thirteen days referred to as the Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other in October 1962. This action was also due to the deployment of nuclear missiles in the UK, Italy and Turkey in 1961; which meant that the United States had the capability to strike Moscow with nuclear warheads. On October 14, 1962, a U.S. aircraft on a photoreconnaissance mission captured photographic evidence of Soviet missile bases under assembly in Cuba. Mark L. Haas (2001)
The United States considered attacking Cuba through the air and sea, but decided on a military blockade instead, calling it a”quarantine" for legal and other reasons. The U.S. announced that it would not allow offensive weapons to be transported to Cuba and demanded that the Soviets dismantle the missile bases already under assembly or completed in Cuba and remove all offensive weapons.
Both the Soviet and American forces prepared for war as it seemed that neither side was willing to back down from its position; both fearing humiliation and a weakening of their power on the international arena. The USSR was determined to protect Cuba from what was an imminent invasion by the U.S., whereas the U.S. was not willing to be threatened by nuclear weapons so close to its mainland and Soviet armed presence in what it considered its own backyard.
Eventually an agreement was reached whereby the U.S. promised to not invade Cuba and remove its nuclear warheads from Turkey and Italy in return for USSR pulling back. This allowed Cuba to be safe from anymore blatant aggression from the U.S. and further strengthened the anti-American view of the Cuban population and government. Till the 1980’s the relationship of the two countries would generally remain strained although some improvements were made.
RefugeesMigration from Cuba to the United States started since Castro took control, and the categorization of those leaving as refugees, has been heavily affected by U.S. foreign policy. During the 1959-62 migration wave, particularly preceding the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion, Cubans were welcomed as short-term exiles, liable to bring down Castro and return home. The second key migration wave began in 1965, in the middle of a U.S. campaign for methodically isolating and economically depriving Cuba and its populace. When thousands of that populace left Cuba, mainly to improve their economic conditions and reunite with family members, they were welcomed as refugees because of the iconic value of their denunciation of Latin America's sole communist state; Cuba. The third migration wave occurred in 1980, after a decade of peace and steadily improving U.S.-Cuban relations. Since it did not serve any U.S. foreign policy plan and was alleged to as helping Cuba rid itself of criminals and unwanted people. Therefore those arriving received little public support. David W. Haines & Karen E. Rosenblum(2009).
1980’s onwardsWith the diminishing of the cold war, Cuba lost its perch as an important outpost of communist operations and the United States relegated its importance as related in Jorge I. Dominguez (1985). In 1990’s the U.S., in supporting democracy in Cuba hiked up sanctions and embargoes against Cuba leading up to the Helms-Burton Act which made the sanctions law in 1996. However by 2010 the U.S.-Cuba relations had thawed considerably enough to allow U.S. corporations to export goods to Cuba. The illness and resignation of Fidel Castro also paved way for speculations that Cuba would now move closer to aligning itself with the U.S. but that has not happened under Raul Castro’s new government. The U.S. is adamant that Cuba cannot be considered a good nation in the international community until it holds democratic election and stops its human rights abuses. Cuba on its behalf has stated that impositions and coercion will not ferment any change. Cuba has also demanded that the U.S. also withdraw from Guantanamo Bay since that infringes on Cuba’s territorial integrity.
i. Claire Suddath (2009). U.S.-Cuba Relations. Time magazine.
ii. Lana Wylie (2011). Perceptions and foreign policy: A comparative study of Canadian and American policy toward Cuba. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal.
iii. Rens Lee (2008). RETHINKING THE EMBARGO. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 87, No. 6 (November/December 2008), pp. 180-182Published.
iv. Mark L. Haas (2001). Prospect Theory and the Cuban Missile Crisis. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 2 (Jun., 2001), pp. 241-270
v. David W. Haines & Karen E. Rosenblum (2009). Perfectly American: Constructing the Refugee Experience. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.
vi. Jorge I. Dominguez (1985). US-Cuban Relations in the 1980s: Issues and Policies. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Feb., 1985), pp.17-34
vii. Timeline: US-Cuba relations. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12159943 U.S. State Department. http://www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/policy.html
Labor force participation: Measures the proportion(women) of a specific population (15 and above) considered to be either working or actively searching for a job.
Developing countries: A developing country, also called a less-developed country (LDC), is a nation with a low living standard, underdeveloped industrial base, and low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Women Participation in the Labor Force of PakistanWomen Participation in the Labor Force of Pakistan Women participation in the labor force in Pakistan has remained substantially lower than that of men’s in the world. However, women participation rate is high and gender gap low in many developing countries, because mostly women are involved in unpaid subsistence farming, and only a few are involved in other paid economic activities. In Pakistan, female labor force participation has risen at a greater rate than that of men since 1980. Pakistan average annual growth rate of FLFP was 4 percent in 1980 90, 4.9 percent in 1990-95 and 5.1 percent in 1995-98, whereas the growth rate of male labor force declined from 3.2 percent in 1980-90 to 2.5 percent in 1990-95 and 2.7 percent in 1995-98. Compared to other South Asian countries, FLFP rate is low in Pakistan. For example, FLFP rate is over 40 percent in Bangladesh and Nepal, 32 percent in India and Bhutan, 36 percent in SriLanka and only 27 percent in Pakistan (World Bank and UNDP).Pakistan being characterized as a developing country has a low incidence of women labor force participation compared to other low income countries. Even though women work from dawn to dusk performing household chores, yet their hard work is considered non-productive and go unrecorded in the respective system of national accounts, thereby making very less or no contribution to the socio-economic development in Pakistan. In Pakistan women, participation in the labor force remains low, merely because women are expected to perform household chores for example cleaning, cooking and taking care of children.
Labour supply is not only a key component of socio-economic development, yet is an important factor for the advancement of women. Since in Pakistan half of the total population comprises of females, women participation in the labor force is an important factor determining the level of development. Pakistan comprises of a major chunk of female population, so them being jobless indicates a higher unemployment level in the country which defeats the purpose to develop. Also, there are certain industries such as clothing where women have broader spectrum and varied skills so they must be employed in accordance to their capabilities so that there is decreased opportunity cost of production. Participation of women in Pakistan can easily be increased in cottage industries due to our cultural and traditional skills. The participation of female labor force is desirable for both equity and efficiency reasons. Equity aspect shows that women’s participation in the labor force ultimately improves their relative economic position and increases the overall economic efficiency by enhancing the development potential of the country. In Pakistan, women are mostly unpaid family workers in the agriculture sector. However as their education improves so do their opportunities in the manufacturing and services sector. Moreover, to overcome severe economic crisis, women must be encouraged to actively participate in economic activities. Also a greater proportion of income earned by women themselves is used on the up-bringing of their children, providing them with quality education.
Factors of Labor SupplyFactors shaping the labor supply decisions of women in Pakistan include the following: Education, marital status, family size, households financial status and mobility of labor. All these explanatory variables can be better described and analysed by dividing them in various groups. First one being the women characteristics, including age of women, completed level of education, training/skills and marital status. Second is the household’s characteristics which might play a critical role in the decision making process and participation of women in economic activities. This includes whether the woman is the head of the household, the number of pre-school age children in the house, the type of family arrangement ( joint or nuclear), total members living in the house (male and female). Third is the financial status of the household based on the monthly expenditure. Last but not the least mobility of labor (occupational and geographical). A detailed in-depth study of the above factors will help give a clear picture of women participation in the labour force in Pakistan.
Women’s age positively influences the possibility of their involvement in economic activity. The more experienced and skilled they are, the more likely they are to participate in labor force. At the individual level women’s decision to work is subject to such factors as the availability of jobs, education level and skills. Human capital such as experience and job-training enhance productivity providing many job opportunities. Education is an important factor affecting women’s decision of labour force participation. Education qualifications enhance job prospects for all individuals and women, making certain jobs more easily available to them.Thus career oriented women with quality education are more likely to participate in labor force. On the other hand, married women are less likely to participate in economic activities. The opposite is true for the widow or divorced women.
Household characteristics play important role in determining women participation in the labour force. In households with illiterate male members, women are more likely to participate in economic activities or are forced to participate to support the family financially. Women’s participation increases if the male members of the household have low human capital. With an increase in number of pre-school children, women are less likely to participate. As the reproductive responsibilities in the home increases, women are most likely to postpone or abdicate participation in economic activities so that there is no hindrance in the up-bringing of children. In addition to this an increased number of family members of the households require women too to actively participate in economic activities to help male members support the family.
The economic status of household is another factor indicating the need for additional economic resources in the household. When the household heads are male employer or employee, women are less likely to participate in economic activities. However, with unpaid family members and male head of the household, women are more likely to participate.
Mobility of labor including both occupational and geographical factors also helps in determining the women participation in the labor force of Pakistan. Lack of information of job opportunities and unwillingness of women to move to another area for work reduces women participation in the labor force of Pakistan.
1. What is Insomnia Disorder
2. Types of Insomnia
3. Causes of Insomnia
4. Effects of Insomnia
5. Insomnia Treatments: Natural Ways and Home Remedies
6. Therapies for Treatments
Insomnia: A Sleeping Disorder
What is Insomnia: DefinitionInsomnia is derived from the Latin word which means “no sleep”. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, difficulty in staying asleep, waking up too early, poor quality i.e non-restorative sleep or maintaining sleep at least 3 nights per week, in addition to complaints of sleep related daytime impairment. Sufficient and restful sleep is a human necessity. And if one does not get enough sleep factors related to quality of life gets affected. In short, insomnia is a serious and pervasive health condition that lowers overall life satisfaction and can lead to an increased risk of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse.
Types of InsomniaThere are two types of Insomnia: primary or secondary. Primary insomnia means that the inability to sleep is not caused by other health problems, medicines, or other substances. It is its own distinct disorder. Many life changes can trigger primary insomnia, including long-lasting stress and emotional upset. Secondary insomnia is due to other health conditions, medicines, sleep disorders that interfere with sleep. It is also called “co-morbid insomnia.”
Insomnia is often categorized by how long it lasts. Although there are several different degrees of insomnia, three types of insomnia have been clearly identified: transient, acute, and chronic. Transient insomnia lasts for a few days to a few weeks. This condition is sometimes referred to as adjustment sleep disorder. The trigger could be a major or traumatic event or a minor event. Short-term (acute) insomnia lasts for no more than 3 weeks. Chronic insomnia is characterized by insomnia that lasts for months and years. Its effects can vary according to its causes. They might include sleepiness, muscular fatigue, hallucinations, and mental fatigue but people with chronic insomnia often show increased alertness. Insomnia can affect all age groups and is more common in adult women than adult men.
Researches around the Globe:The article, “Chronic Insomnia as a Risk Factor for Developing Anxiety and Depression” focuses on relations of insomnia to the development of anxiety disorders and depression. The author clearly states that insomnia and major depression among adolescents indicates the two are reciprocally related but exactly how they might be causally linked is uncertain. All three sub-types of insomnia are associated with anxiety disorders. Individuals entering depression are known to often develop concurrent insomnia, and that individuals with insomnia are at risk for developing depression. Some of these bidirectional connections clearly involve associations of insomnia and depression with co-occurring anxiety states, other psychiatric or general medical comorbidities, or substance-related factors. Persistent sleep problems in childhood may be an early risk indicator of anxiety in adulthood. The severity of depression is signiﬁcantly associated with non-restorative sleep and decreased total sleep duration. The severity and duration of depression will be exaggerated if patient depression is combined with chronic insomnia. The close relationship between insomnia and depression is also observed in the elderly. Sleep disturbance is also associated with more severe and later onset depression, where elderly patients with depression had longer awakenings, poor sleep efﬁciency. Therefore, patients with insomnia should be carefully evaluated for the presence of comorbid depression, which can facilitate the early detection and management of insomnia. (Dag Neckelmann, Amstein Mykletun and Alv A. Dahl)
Effects of Insomnia on Quality of LifeThe conclusion is that insomnia does have negative effects on the quality of life as it causes health issues such as muscle fatigue, loss of stamina, weakness of immune system etc. Moreover, insomnia severely affects mental health too. It is a cause of other disorders and one of the biggest risk factor for depression. People suffering from insomnia are mostly found to be pessimistic, fearful, shy and easily fatigued. Without sleep our brains deteriorate. Insomnia may cause memory weakness and memory loss. When we are sleep deprived the brain starts to get disorganized and makes it difficult to concentrate. Not only it creates hallucinations but also makes it difficult for the brain to learn and process information. It can also cause emotional damages like mood swings, severe anxiety, depression, difficulty in understanding and responding to crucial situations. As a result of these effects insomnia directly affects the wellbeing and life style of any individual suffering from the disease. People who sleep less than five hours have been found to be more likely to gain weight. Work performance is also affected that is why insomniac patients have a very hard time succeeding in their fields of work. It leads to higher absenteeism. Accidents often occur especially when operating motor vehicles, while suffering from insomnia. Similarly, the psychological and emotional conditions make it very difficult for the insomniac patients to hold their nerves in pressure situations which make their social life more difficult. There are a number of ways to get rid of Insomnia and many other sleeping disorders.
Insomnia Treatments: How to treat Insomnia?There are both non-pharmacological and pharmacotherapy treatments for insomnia patients. Any treatment for insomnia should accomplish three goals: induce sleep, maintain sleep, and promote functionality the next day. Many doctors recommend a number of behavioral methods and prescription medications as the main insomnia treatments. And doctors believe that these insomnia treatment options can improve both quality and quantity of sleep for people with insomnia.
Doctors also recommends behavior therapy. Behavioral treatments teach new sleep behaviors and ways to improve your sleeping environment. Behavior therapies are equally or more effective than are sleep medications and effectively get rid of insomnia. Behavioral therapies include:
o Stimulus control
o Cognitive behavioral therapy
o Relaxation training and biofeedback
o Sleep restriction
Goals of Sleep Disorder Therapies:o To reduce the time it takes to go to sleep to below 30 minutes
o Reduce wake-up periods during the night
Stimulus Control to get rid of Insomnia:The primary idea behind stimulus control is to establish the idea that the bed is meant only for sleeping. It emphasizes not watching TV or reading in bed. It includes some of the following practices:
· Use bed only when you are ready to sleep.
· If unable to sleep within 15 - 20 minutes, get up and go into another room.
· Maintain a regular wake-up time no matter how few hours you actually sleep.
· Avoid naps
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy:This is a form of psychotherapy that focuses on identifying unwanted feelings or thoughts and replacing them with more positive thoughts. It involves actions that are intended to alter the behavior. It is a type of counseling that can help you understand why you have sleep problems and can show you how to deal with them. It is one of another effective home remedy for insomnia treatment.
Relaxation training and biofeedback: Natural Home RemedyRelaxation therapy; as the name suggest is associated with physical relaxation using different techniques to you calm your mind and body. Approaches include meditation, hypnosis and muscle relaxation. Whereas biofeedback method allows observing biological signs such as heart rate and muscle tension. It involves being monitored with a device that measures brain waves. This information can help identify patterns that affect sleep.
Sleep Restriction:Lying in bed when awake can become a habit that leads to poor sleep. In this home remedy for sleeping disorders the time spent in bed is limited to the time spent in sleeping. As sleep improves, the hours spent in bed are increased.
Other than these behavioral therapies drugs and medicines are also used to recover from insomnia.
Drug Therapy:In drug therapy different approaches might be used. Initially medications are used to decrease the anxiety and stress caused due to insomnia. Most commonly used drugs are Zolpidem, Temazepam, Zaleplon and Flurazepam. However, in rare cases, these medications may cause severe allergic reactions, facial swelling. These drugs may also cause hazardous or unusual behaviors, such as driving or preparing and eating food while asleep. Side effects of prescription sleeping medications are often more pronounced in older people and may include excessive drowsiness, impaired thinking, night wandering, agitation and balance problems. As a general rule doctors discourage the usage of sleeping pills on a daily basis. Patients over the age of 60 are usually not given sedatives. The medication is decreased gradually and sometimes patient might face insomnia rebound after the medication is being stopped.
All these therapies and natural home remedies to get rid of Insomnia are valid and science has proved their positive effect on the life of people suffering from sleeping disorders.
1. Natural Depression Treatment: How to get rid of Depression?
2. Causes, Types and Symptoms of Depression
Wednesday, 2 October 2013
Tips to increase Platelet counts in Dengue FeverDengue results in dehydration and decline in platelet count. In order for the patient to survive he needs to keep his body hydrated and his platelet count stable. Scary, isn’t it? Clinical trials and research evidence suggest some herbal and home treatments through which the platelet count can be increased during dengue fever.
· Papaya leaves are rich in complex vitamins and are known to contain high amounts of A, C, E, K, and B vitamins. It is also known to increase the white blood cells and helps in the production of platelets when taken in the form of juice. To make this papaya leaf juice, clean the leaf and carefully cut out the stem. Squeeze out the juice by blending the leaves with a food blender or processor. Take 1 tablespoon twice a day.
· Fruits containing anti-oxidants such as berries, pomegranates, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, cashew nuts, and grapes are rich in minerals and vitamins. They help in the eliminating the free radicals in the blood.
· Intake of green fresh vegetables like flax seed oils, cod liver oil, fresh fruits and nuts help to increase the platelet count and also improves the immune system of the body.
· Multivitamins with iron supplements and Vitamin C and E can help boost the platelet count. It plays a vital role in regulating the patient’s physiology.
Medical methods have also been put forward for increasing the platelet count in dengue patients. Some of the methods are explained below.
· Platelet transfusion takes place when platelets from donor are transferred into the patient’s arm though an intravenous drip.
· A surgery called surgical splenectomy can be done to remove the spleen from the patient’s body if the patient’s antibodies keep destroying the platelets that are transferred into his body.
· Corticosteroids are prescribed to be taken with the food to increase platelet count in a few days.
· Vitamin C tablets dissolved in water can easily be absorbed by the body which quickly helps restore the platelet count.
Hope these tips help you understand how to increase the platelet count because God forbid, when dengue strikes in your own home and your near ones becomes victim, you should know what to do. Read the tips for prevention of dengue virus so people at your home don't get Dengue
Sunday, 29 September 2013
Introduction:Vietnam war was the longest and most unpopular war in the American history. The war stretched over 19 years from 1954 to 1973. The primary American motive was to stop spread of communism in the world. 58000 Americans lost lives, 304k wounded and 75k were severely disabled. The total cost of Vietnam War that United States suffered in monetary terms was 200 billion dollars.
Causes of Vietnam War1. Communism in North supported by USSR and China
2. French defeat in 1954 and Geneva Peace Accords. According to the agreement the country was divided into 2 halves at 17th parallel and an announcement of elections to be held 2 years later in 1956. US opposition of elections after it emerged that the communists would win the elections.
3. Southeast Asian Treaty Organization was set up with the help of U.S. Military political and economic aid was provided by the U.S to South Vietnam and Republic of Vietnam was born on 1955. Ngo Dinh Diem became the 1st president.
4. Justification for U.S involvement was Domino Theory which stated, “IF South Vietnam falls to Communists, then Laos, Cambodia Thailand, Burma, India would also fall like Dominos. The Pacific Island and even Australia could be at a risk.
Events in Vietnam-U.S War:Diem declared, S.V was under threat from communists residing in North. 1957: Diem counterattacks with US military help. Passed series of acts known as 10/59 which made it legal for holding communists behind bars without bringing formal charges. It was met with hostility in the native land as Monks, students and intellectuals protested unfair laws and oppression
National Liberated Front was created in 1960 in opposition of government. Anyone could join as long as they wanted a United Vietnam and were against Diem’s rule. Americans labeled the movement “Viet Cong” which meant Vietnamese Communists.
December 1961: Kennedy sends team to Vietnam to asses further American aid requirements.
Strategic Helmet Program (US and South Vietnam joint operation): Placed the villagers in safe helmets (places) isolating the communists from the villagers. It proved counter effective and further consolidated NLF as more people joined the movement.
Summer 1963: Evident that the South Vietnam government would fall. Diem’s brother raided Buddhists Pagodas (place where they lived) and accused them of harboring communists and creating instability. Monks protested by self immolation (setting themselves on fire). IT made world headlines. Coup in South Vietnam with US military help; Diem and his brother was arrested and later killed. Kennedy was also assassinated after 3 weeks of Diem’s killing.
Johnson becomes U.S president. 1964: 2 US ships shot down in Gulf of Tokin on 2nd and 4th August. Gulf of Tokin resolution was signed in US which gave president broad war powers. AIR ATTACKS on North Vietnam.
1965: 2 US installations destroyed in North Vietnam. Operation ROLLING THUNDER begins, Phosphorus and Napalm bombings results in thousand of civilians getting severe burns.
Operation RANCH HAND: Chemical bombings containing Dioxin destroyed millions of acres of jungles but also contaminated the crop which caused chromosome damage to humans. Children were born with deformities.
North Vietnamese Tactics to fight back:1. Maoist Guerrilla tactics which meant the NFL people would be hard to distinguish from the villagers.Lands were distributed to the peasants. By 1973, NFL had control over half of South Vietnam.
2. Use of AK47 outperformed American M16 guns. Rocket launchers destroyed vehicles. Recycled US bombs and used them against them.
3. Built large tunnel complexes to remain safe from bombings. US countered with Search and Destroy tactics. Burnt down villages.
4. War Strategy was to entangle US in a war they could not win militarily.
What was happening around in America:
|Protests against Vietnam War|
Tet Offensive attacks on southern cities by NFL to bring Americans to the bargaining table. MY Lai Massacre in 1968. Photos caused huge uproar in the world.
Nixon wins elections in 68 “Secret plan to end war”. The secret plan was “Vietnamization”. Increase in air war over NV and use of SV soldiers for ground attacks.
Protests increased. Kent shootings and Jackson state shootings result in death of students
End of War1972: Christmias bombings. Seiries of deadly bombings. International community condemns.
1973: Paris Peace agreement is signed. US convinced South Vietnam, they would not leave their support if they signed it. January 23: war ends between US and North Vietnam but not between NV and SV.
April 30, 1975: Communists take over South Vietnam.
Why US lost Vietnam War?The main reason for US loss in Vietnam War are as followed:
1. Underestimated NV and NLF.
2. 2. Could not stop the movement of the troops despite heavy bombings.
3. NV fought people’s war
4. American public did not support the war.
5. Deep questions about US troops’ efficiency
6. Never understood Vietnamese culture.
7. Could not lose any more soldiers in a jungle war they were never prepared for..
8. Strengths and resourcefulness of NLF. Tunnels etc
Thursday, 26 September 2013
Detente is the policy that aimed at reducing the cold war tensions in the world. It is defined as the dealing with other nations in a practical and realistic manner. It was carried out between 1969-80. The policy required showing of flexibility at both ends so that it could be effectively implemented.
Richard Nixon realized the importance of reduced tensions, and he was instrumental in initiating the policy. He was the first president to visit China after World war II. He also visited Soviet Union in 1972. His visit to the Soviet Union was of paramount importance due to the fact, he was there to sign a treaty that would limit the number of ballistic missiles each country could hold. The treaty was called Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty or SALT I. He, and his Russian counterpart Brezhnev signed the treaty that was a historical achievement.
In the Western world, Willy Brandt (Chancellor of West Germany) quickly realized that healthy relationships would be beneficial for West Germany and his policy showed great flexibility and commitment to reducing the Cold War tensions. He showed desire to improve the relationships with Soviet Union for the promotion of peace. He was also willing to recognize East Germany and Poland’s West border. Having profitable and good relationships with the neighbours is the key to the economic and socio-political growth of a country.
After Nixon’s tenure ended, Jimmy Carter assumed the duties of presidency in the United States and he continued with the policy of Detente as a part of his foreign policy. His attempts were directed to negotiate further reduction in nuclear missiles. Although Carter’s efforts were honest, his attempts to put further limits on nuclear ammunition by signing SALT II in 1979 were hampered because the Congress refused to pass the SALT-II treaty.
End of Detente Policy:The basic reason cited for the rejection of SALT II by the Congress is the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet Union in 1979. The Communist government of Afghanistan was falling on its feet and Soviet intervened to prevent its downfall.However, the efforts ended in failure and Soviets had to retreat in 1988. It was also seen as the 1st sign of Soviet weekness and kick started the downfall of the Soviet empire. After the Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, U.S boycotted the 1980 Olympic games which were to be held in Moscow to register their protest. The invasion effectively ended the Detnte policy there and then in 1980.
The Iranian Revolution:In addition to that, the regime of U.S supported Shah of Iran was overthown in 1979. Iranian Revolution lead by Ayat Ullah Khomeni swept accross and Religious dictatorship came into power. 60 American hostages were held for 444 days and as a consequence of that, President Carter lost popularity in United States. Iran became a strict Islam law state there and then. That was a brief overview of the Detente Policy. Leave your feedback. :)
The technology was introduced in the early 1960’s. Computer Generated Content began as Fragmentation Animation. Tthe film known as Hummingbird is among one of the first to be made using CGI. Hummingbird gained fame when it was viewed at the fourth International Experimental Film Competition in Brussels, Belgium. This “Fragmentation Animation” which is the deformation and reformations of an object in a computer generated space - was an important step for CGI in films because with it came the birth of an entirely new technology for use in the film industry (Fragmentation Animations, 2007).
The visual scenes may be dynamic or static, and may be 2D, though the term "CGI" is most commonly used to refer to 3D computer graphics used for creating scenes or special effects in films and television.
Early films that used Computer Generated ContentOne of the earliest movies that used Computer generated content was Star Wars. It was released in 1977 and took the world by storm. The technology was used to trench run briefing sequence. The other films in the early era that were renowned for CGC include Alien (1979), Dire Straits (1985), Lybrinth (1986), and Start Trek IV (1986)
In the modern era some CGC films that have caught the eye include Titanic, Toty Story, The Matrix triology, Spider Man, and Lord of the Rings trilogy.
Directors who feel use of CGC is not necessary
Although CGC has become an important component of the film industry but some directors have been somewhat very restricted towards the use of it. For instance Martin Scorcesse has not been the greatest admirer of CGC in films and openly shared his opinion on it for the best part of 20 years. Although, it seems like his views have changed as Hugo, one of his latest fims Hugo heavily used computer generated content. Clint Eastwood also shared negative views on using computer generated imagery and techniques in films since it took the authenticity and human element out of the film. Christopher Nolan is another director who is not a great admirer of using CGI or CGC. In one of the interview, he said "The thing with computer-generated imagery is that it’s an incredibly powerful tool for making better visual effects. But I believe in an absolute difference between animation and photography. However sophisticated your computer-generated imagery is, if it’s been created from no physical elements and you haven’t shot anything, it’s going to feel like animation. There are usually two different goals in a visual effects movie. One is to fool the audience into seeing something seamless, and that’s how I try to use it. The other is to impress the audience with the amount of money spent on the spectacle of the visual effect, and that, I have no interest in."